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Aristotle (384-322v.C.)

belongs to one of the most famous and influential philosopher in history. A lot of disciplines and (technical) terms has been significant embossed or even founded by Aristotle. Some examples for disciplines are biology, ethics, logic and physics. Terms that he has a great influence on are for example substance, potency, theory and practice. Out of his ideas, the "Aristotelism" was built up.

The Greek philosopher belongs with Socrates and Plato to one of the most famous and significant philosophers ever.

Aristotle was born in Stagira in Makedonia which he left when he became 17 years old. He moved to Athens to study at Plato's university. Here, he stayed for 20 years as a student and then as a teacher. After Plato's death (347 B. C.) Aristotle moved again to Assos, a small city in Asia Minor where Hermia ruled, also a friend of Aristotle. On demand from Hermia, Aristotle married his niece and adopted daughter Pythias. But Hermias was captured and murdered by the Persians 345 before Christ, Aristotle moves again to Pella, the capital of Makedonia. He found work as a teacher of the successors to the throne.

One of them, Alexander the Great has been. He taught him until he was crowned as the king. Then, Aristotle relocated to Athens and established his own school "Lykeion". Aristotle decided to retreat to his country estate on Eboea after the death of Alexander the Great (323 before Christ) when the spread of a high anti- makedonian attitude has been proceeded. One year later, Aristotle died there.

Aristotle has written a dictionary within a lot of philosophic terms and a summery of the theory of Pythagoras from which short extracts are obtained. Also his material for his lessons in school were thoroughly summarized and received in nearly every aspect which means from science to art. Out off these knowledge, Aristotle's reputation is reasoned because they were collected and sorted by later editors. One example could be his disquisition of the logic which is called "Organon" (means tool) shows ways how to reach the right knowledge.

His writings embrace among other things:

  • Physics contains comprehensive information about astronomy, metrology, plants and animals
  • Aristotle gave his "first philosophy" (named by his own) the title Metaphysics (approximately 60 before Christ) which includes nature, intent and properties of things because they were following in every publication after the physics aspects.
  • "Prime Mover" or "The First Cause" that is also known as the principle of the "pure thinking", "absolute device" or "the thinking of thinking".


Aristotle inscribes his ethical writings "Nokomachische Ethic" to his son Nicomachos.
Some more of his main work are only imperfectly and incomplete obtained, like for example some aspects of rhetoric, poetics and policies

Affected by his father's work as a doctor, the focus of Aristotle is also on the biological aspects. For him, the world is compromised of individuals (substances) that could be divided in certain natural genus (species). Every individual has a specified sample concerning development and growth so that it can develop corresponding an exemplar of his genus. Growth, purpose and direction are the most important components of the beings.

As Aristotle says, science and philosophic have to be in balance so that between the demand of the Empirism (the cognition of the sensory experience) and the formalism (rational deduction) and not to select only one of them. He made an other essential contribution for the philosophy by inventing the term "causality". That means that there are more reasons than only one reason (that was the way fellow Greeks thought about) that describes what,why and what for some things are existing.

Therefor Aristotle recommends 4 level to explain:

  1. materiel cause: the substance the thing consists of
  2. efficient cause: the source for movement, development or changes
  3. formal cause: defines form, art or type
  4. final cause: the aim

Explanation of these 4 causes:

  1. A young lion consists of tissues and organs,
  2. His parents have procreated him,
  3. It is determined of the species of the lion
  4. This is his compulsion to develop to an adult lion

These four causes can be used analogously for different coherences.

At this point it becomes clear that Aristotle had an huge and omnipresent impact on both philosophy and biology.
The zoology invoked on Aristotle's theory until the 19. century when the English scientist Charles Darwin published his theory about the "The Constancy of types" and additionally, refuted the theory of Aristotle.

In the 20th century, Aristotle's method has seen a boost concerning education, criticism concerning literary, the analysis of human's action and the political analysis.

To put it all into a nutshell, not only the aspect of the zoology, also the whole world of letters confirm Aristotle's philosophy. Once, Darwin said that the great intellectual of Aristotle's time are compared to Aristotle simple schoolboys.


The Greek philosopher Aristotle belongs together with Socrates and Plato to one of the most famous and significant philosophers ever.

Famous Physicist

Pierre Curie (1859 - 1906) You don't need to be a scientist to know who Maria Curie-Sklodowska was. You can also read about her on our website. As the only one woman in the world, she gained the Nobel Prize in two different fields of knowledge. She shared one of them with her no less famous husband, Pierre Curie. Her devotion to science made a huge impression on him.


Jospeh John Thomson ( 1856 - 1940 ) A person who did many researches on cathode rays that, finally, led to the discovery of the electrons. Moreover, he was interested in the atomic structure and won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1906.


André-Marie Ampère (1775 – 1836)

The flow of electric charge is named electric current. Maybe you heard something about electric current and in addition to this about the measure ampere (A) in your every day life, too. But do you know or asked yourself after what this measure is named? If not, here is the answer: after the founder of electrodynamics- after André-Marie Ampère.



Johannes Gutenberg ( c. 1395 - 1468 ) How many newspapers, magazines and posters have you seen or read today? Many. But have you ever thought about the inventor who changed our life with the printing press? It was Johannes Gutenberg in 1440 with his printing press and movable blocks of letters and graphics that made materials available for the whole population.


Marie Curie (1867-1934)

discovered the beta activity which was used in the Second World War to help injured soldiers. Because of this and some other cognition she won the Nobel price twice, in chemistry and physics; but that is only an extract of the achievements Marie Curie reached in her life.


Isaac Newton ( 1643 – 1727 )

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Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Einstein's career began as a teacher for mathematics and physics while he was expanding the idea of Max Planck's quantum theory by adding the hypothesis of the light quantum. Einstein's discoveries were revolutionary even for today's physics: it develops a new understanding of the ration between space and time, and also of the force of gravity. Of course, he won a Nobel prize for his discoveries.


Max Planck (1858-1947)

He had a big influence on the foundation of the basics in physics. A lot of his discoveries are named by his surname, like for example: the "Plancksche medal", the "Plancksche action quantum" or the "Plancksche radiation law".  In 1918 Planck lent with the Nobel prize because he has established the quantum theory which succeeded 20 years later the break through with the help of Einstein and Niels Bohr.



Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (1887- 1961)

After studying mathematics and physics in Vienna, Schrödinger became a professor for theoretical physics like Einstein and Max von Laue before him. Later he enunciates the "Schrödinger- equation" which builds the foundation of the quantum mechanics. In addition, he embosses the development of the molecular biology. With a lot of great chances to teach in different universities, Schrödinger also got awarded with a Nobel Prize in physics.


Famous Biologists

Werner Arber (*1929)

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Francois Jacob ( 1920 - 2013 ) On 17 of June 1920, in Nancy, the city in the east of French, was born
François Jacob, the only child of Simon and Thérèse Jacob.
His father was a merchant, but an equally important role in the development of young Francois, played his grandfather -  Albert Franck, a four-star general.


Rosalind Franklin (1920 – 1958)

discovered the structure of the DNA and the Tobacco Mosaic Virus with X-ray crystallography.
She is a biologist who took part in several explorations. Usually, she used to get a Nobel Prize but she died before.


Robert Koch ( 1843 – 1910 )

is a very important character for our health today. He is the one who studied the bacteria that caused tuberculosis, anthax and cholrea, each of them an illness in the 18th century. Because of this extraordinary studies he won the nobel prize twice in 1905, in physiology and medicine and started to help people all over the world with his knowledge.


Aristotle (384-322v.C.)

belongs to one of the most famous and influential philosopher in history. A lot of disciplines and (technical) terms has been significant embossed or even founded by Aristotle. Some examples for disciplines are biology, ethics, logic and physics. Terms that he has a great influence on are for example substance, potency, theory and practice. Out of his ideas, the "Aristotelism" was built up.


Alexander Fleming ( 1881 - 1955 )
Sir Alexander Fleming was born on  August 6, 1881 in Ayrshire, Scotland. The scottish biologist and inventor  is widely regarded for his discovery of penicillin, a drug that is used to kill harmful bacteria.He studied medicine from 1901 at the St. Mary's Hospital Medical
School in Paddington.


Charles Darwin (1809-1822)

gives distinction to the theory of evolution. His idea was that the change of varieties and the origin gets realized by natural selection: only the fittest will survive because of struggling for life. His work influences biology and geology not only in the past. Even today the term "Darwinism" is used to explain how evolution works.


Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
discovered in 1865 that there exists a certain numerical ratio which is called: Mendel's Laws of Heredity. This laws become the basic of genetics in science since today. With the help of Mendel's laws nearly everybody is able to anticipate the genetic recombination of allele pairs in sexual reproduction. The three laws are Laws of Inheritance, the law of the uniformity of hybrids, the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment.


Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)

he was a french chemist and microbiologist. He is classified as a founder of the modern bacteriology. He has examined the germ of hydrophobia and anthrax. After this discovery, he invented active immunisations against hydrophobia, anthrax, red murrain and chicken cholera. The term "pasteurization" is caused by Louis Pasteur. This means the method of carefully heating liquids up to 60 or 80 degrees with the effect that they become longer lasting.


Theodor Schwann (1810-1822) and Matthias Schleiden (1804-1881)

both of them have made their own discoveries and achievements but together they have made one very important discovery (1839): "The Theory of Cells". This theory badges the cell as a basically particle of plants and animals. Schwann and Schleiden were able to recognize that some organism are unicellular, while others are multicellular. Additionally, they found out that the cell nucleus and the membrane belong to the properties of the cell, occupied by comparisons of different plant and animal tissues.


Famous Chemist

Gertrude B. Elion (1918-1999)

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Louis Lumière (1864-1948)

Nobody of us can imagine the world without movies, cinemas and actors. It is unbelievable especially for people who are living in XX century. But you have to know that it was not always like this. The possibility to go to the cinema and watch a new movie gave us Louis Lumière and his brother Auguste.


Carl Bosch ( 1874 - 1940)


Carl Bosch, born in Cologne, Germany, was a prominent German industrial chemist and entrepreneur.


John Dalton (1766- 1844)

He is a famous English naturalist and teacher. He is considered as an innovator of chemistry because of his fundamental researches. Here are some examples of his successful research: the studies about thermal expansion, formulates the "Dalton- law", preparatory work of the periodic system of elements and he discovered the "Daltonism" which means acritochromacy.

Antoine Laurant de Lavoisier (1743-1794)
In 1772 he discovered the three conditions of matters: solid, liquid and gassy which he published in "Opuscule physique et chemique" (franc., small discourse of chemistry and physics). Additionally, he gave oxygen (acid-creator) his name because he discovered while some experiments that water and air are compound substances. Meanwhile the French Revolution, Lavoisier helped in introducing the "metric system" which unifies all of units.


Dimitri Mendelejew (1834- 1907)

has succeeded to tabulate the periodic system (short: PSE= periodic system of elements) which contains every chemical element. He started the system to impose beginning with the smallest to the biggest element. When there were any properties in common, he put them into groups and in the periodic system he arranged them among themselves. In the end, Mendelejew illustrated a context between atomic weight and chemical characteristics. The element 101 "Mendelevium" was called by Mendelejew.


Alfred Nobel (1833- 1896)

affected by his father and his engineering works, Nobel's career begins with some smaller inventions (gas -and liquid measuring instrument, barometer or manometer) which he also patented. In May 1862, Nobel ran the first successful underwater demolition with nitroglycerin. Two years later, he invented the detonation which he has called "Nobel's patent detonator". His idea of quality manufacturing was not safe to operate because a dynamite factory exploded -and even Nobel's little brother died. But Nobel did not surrender, he went on in improving the detonations.

Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)

since 1931 was an atomic physicist. Until he was awarded with the Nobel price in 1908, Rutherford made some discoveries of highest priority for chemists. One example could be the half life before he has been honored because of his studies about the decay of elements and the chemical composition of radioactive elements. In the year 1911, Rutherford refutes the atomic model of Joseph J. Thomson and originates the "Rutherfordium atomic model". Additionally, the first artificial nuclear reaction was also succeeded by Rutherford.